Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason 1 by Jun Wang

Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason 1

Kant distinguished the two sorts of propositions – analytic and synthetic, the a priori and a postori, he asked whether the synthetic propositions a prior are possible? That’s to ask whether mathematics and empirical sciences are possible.

knowledge springs from two sources – sensuous intuition as the receivity of the representations and the understanding as the spontanity of producing the representations, though the former the representations are given to us and though the second the object is thought, there are two sorts of intuitions – pure and empirical, and pure intuitions makes the empirical intuition possible, and there are two forms of the pure intuition space and time which make the synthesis of propositions of mathematics possible.

Space and time have got to be pure intuition a priori and transcendental for a concept can be deduced from other another whilst space and time are both infinite and can not be deduced from any limited empirical concepts which are derived from sensuous intuitions, and we can not visualise anything without the presence of space or time… they have got to be the our a priori knowledge, transcendental ideality rather than empirical reality

Apart from the a priori forms of the pure intuitions there are also a priori concepts of the human understanding applied to the empirical intuition, these concepts/categories are causality, quality, quantity and mode and to be applied to the experience is the only legitimate use of the them, for to be applied beyond the sphere/boundaries of the experience, there raise the concepts which have got no objects, and that causes th transcendental illusions. The manifold representations are united in the in the transcendental synthesis though the appreception/self-awareness/I-think (Descrates) and are united into a concept of object so that thinking is possible as an act of the understanding, this is also called by Kant productive imagination, differing from the reproductive imagination which is the sphere of psychology.

How could the categories being intellectual be applied to the empirical intuitions which can only be sensuous, there must be a third thing which is both sensuous and intellectual and which connects them, that’s schema, if we close our eyes we can not see the thing 4 which is an intellectual concept, but we can see 4 figures and the sensuous/intellectual schema connects the 4 figures to the concept 4.

Then Kant discussed the rest high faculties of the human cognition- judgement and reason apart from the human understanding… there are such principles of the human understanding applied to the judgements – axioms of the intuition,analogy of the experience,I forgot the third one, pure mathematics is based on the transcendental axioms of the intuitions, as for analogy, specially causality, we can only apprehend in sequence in the series of time, we can perceive A and then B following A, and this is regulated and we expect B to happen when we perceive A again, and we apply this to the experience/empirical intuition… causality no matter sequential or parallel is the connection derived from the understanding, rather than from the things themselves or the representations to our senses.

Jun Wang